, The olive baboon also actively hunts prey, such as small rodents, birds and other primates. The mating order among the males depends partially on their social ranking, and fights between males are not unusual. South Africa North to Angola, Zambia, and Mozambique, This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 17:46. The olive baboon is named for its coat, which, at a distance, is a shade of green-grey. A variety of communications, vocal and non-vocal, facilitate a complex social structure. They reach sexual maturity in five to eight years. Among the same vegetation live insects and small animals, which are also perfectly suitable for food. Baboons live in Middle and Eastern Africa. Baboons in captivity live up to 45 years, while in the wild they average between 20 to 30 years.  Infant baboons born to first-time mothers suffer higher mortality than those born to experienced mothers, which suggests that prior experience in caring for infants is important.  Most baboons live in hierarchical troops. They prefer semiarid habitats but can live elsewhere because they are extremely adaptable. All baboons have long, dog-like muzzles, heavy, powerful jaws with sharp canine teeth, close-set eyes, thick fur except on their muzzles, short tails, and rough spots on their protruding buttocks, called ischial callosities. There are five species of baboons, commonly known as hamadryas baboon, Guinea baboon, olive baboon, yellow baboon and chacma baboon.  Males groom infants, reducing the amount of parasites they may have, and calm them when they are stressed.  This coloration is shared by both sexes, although males have a mane of longer hair that tapers down to ordinary length along the back.  A male disperses, or leaves his natal group and joins another group, after reaching sexual maturity. , Olive baboons communicate with various vocalizations and facial expressions. Baboon males leave their birth group, usually before they reach sexual maturity, whereas females are philopatric and stay in the same group their whole lives. Group sizes are typically around 50 animals, but can vary between 5 and 250, depending on species, location and time of year. , Baboon social dynamics can also vary; Robert Sapolsky reported on a troop, known as the Forest Troop, during the 1980s, which experienced significantly less aggressive social dynamics after its most aggressive males died off during a tuberculosis outbreak, leaving a skewed gender ration of majority females and a minority of low-aggression males.  Females gain protection from threats to themselves and their infants (if they have any).  Frequently, when older baboons drop in the social hierarchy, they move to another tribe. Throughout the day, baboons of all ages emit the "basic grunt". Females typically give birth after a six-month gestation, usually to a single infant; twin baboons are rare and often do not survive. There are the best conditions for their comfortable and well-fed existence.  This difference lasts for approximately the first eight weeks of an infant's life.  A submissive baboon responds with displays such as the "fear grin", the "rigid crouch", and "tail erect". They often raid human dwellings, and in South Africa, they have been known to prey on sheep, goats and poultry. Another time, monkeys have noticed danger before, and rush to protect the herd.  The hair on the baboon's face is coarser and ranges from dark grey to black. , Females are sexually mature at seven to eight years old, and males at seven to 10 years. They tend to stay close together and groom one another, and team up in aggressive encounters within the troop. , The species inhabits a strip of 25 equatorial African countries, very nearly ranging from the east to west coasts of the continent. Adams, Efik Vocabulary of Living things Part II, Ransom TW. , A female often forms a long-lasting social relationship with a male in her troop, known as a "friendship". All of these can, and do, live in any area, and on any available edibles, on the African continent, including tropical rainforest. Despite this, some males will raid harems for females. Unless a female is in a multiday consortship, she often copulates with more than one male each day. In ancient times baboons were considered sacred animals from the Egyptians. Baboons in captivity live up to 45 years, while in the wild they average between 20 to 30 years. , R.F.G. , Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (1 of 3), Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (2 of 3), Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (3 of 3).  He could also potentially end up mating with his female friend in the future. Papio cynocephalus Visual threats usually accompany these aggressive fights. , Despite being hierarchical, baboons appear to be "democratic" when it comes to deciding the direction of collective movement. Monkey baboon often lives next to ungulates, for example with antelope. Papio ursinus.  Baboons are among the largest non-hominoid primates and have existed for at least two million years. The baboons use the water holes dug by the elephants, while the elephants use the tree-top baboons as an early warning system.  The tail almost looks as if it is broken, as it is erect for the first quarter, after which it drops down sharply. The Guinea baboon’s tail is carried in a round arc form. These calluses are nerveless, hairless pads of skin that provide for the sitting comfort of the baboon. Females are the primary caregivers of infants, but males also play a role. The five species of baboons in the genus Papio are:, Many authors distinguish P. hamadryas as a full species, but regard all the others as subspecies of P. cynocephalus and refer to them collectively as "savanna baboons". The animals live in highly organized hierarchies of about 200 individuals in each group. The "cough-bark", and the "cough geck" are made when low-flying birds or humans they do not know are sighted.  A male forms a mating consortship with an estrous female, staying close to and copulating with her. Baboons live in Middle and Eastern Africa. The females tend to be the primary caretaker of the young, although several females will share the duties for all of their offspring.  It inhabits savannahs, steppes, and forests.  The male protects his female from being mated by other males during consortship. Most baboons live in hierarchical troops containing harems. East Brunswick (NJ): Assoc Univ Press, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T40647A10348950.en, "Estimation of body weights from craniometric variables in baboons", "Social relationships and ritualised greetings in adult male baboons (, "Shared decision-making drives collective movement in wild baboons", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Olive_baboon&oldid=980597632, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles containing Tigrinya-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 September 2020, at 11:13.
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