[91] Weather-related deflations of some air-supported roofs led David Geiger to develop a modified type, the more rigid "Cabledome", that incorporated Fuller's ideas of tensegrity and aspension rather than being air-supported. The conservatory at Syon Park was one of the earliest and included a 10.8 meter span iron and glass dome by Charles Fowler built between 1820 and 1827. Built to herald the dawn of a new millennium, its design was inspired by time and the heavens. They have been made circular, elliptical, and other shapes to cover stadiums from Korea to Florida. It had a 16 meter wide central dome of thin wrought iron ribs and narrow glass panes on a cast iron ring and iron columns. "[69], Domes built with steel and concrete were able to achieve very large spans. The large, ribbed, egg-shaped dome topped with a spire was influenced by the dome of the Maria vom Siege church in Vienna. [59], The Hungarian Parliament Building was built in the Gothic style, although most of the 1882 design competition entries used Neo-Renaissance, and it includes a domed central hall. The glass panes are set in panels joined by copper or brass ribs between the 23 main cast iron ribs. [78] Popularized by a 1955 article on the work of Félix Candela in Mexico, architectural shells had their heyday in the 1950s and 1960s, peaking in popularity shortly before the widespread adoption of computers and the finite element method of structural analysis. The architect, Thomas U. Walter, designed a double dome interior based on that of the Panthéon in Paris. [8] The large domes of the 19th century included exhibition buildings and functional structures such as gasometers and locomotive sheds. [22], Large neoclassical domes include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta, was completed in 1840 with a dome 38 meters wide, and San Carlo al Corso in Milan, completed in 1847 with a dome 32 meters wide. A part-spherical dome, it measures 30 meters in diameter from the top of its merging pendentives, where steel rods embedded in concrete act as a restraining ring. [27], The wrought-iron dome of Royal Albert Hall in London was built from 1867 to 1871 over an elliptical plan by architect Henry Young Darracott Scott and structural design by Rowland Mason Ordish. Its exterior is reminiscent of the Dome of … [26], Other examples of framed iron domes include those of a synagogue in Berlin, by Schwedler in 1863, and the Bode Museum by Muller-Breslau in 1907. Millennium Dome by Richard Rogers architect, at London, England, United Kingdom, 1999, architecture in the Great Buildings Online. [15], The neoclassical Baltimore Basilica, designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe after the Roman Pantheon for Bishop John Carroll, was begun in 1806 and dedicated in 1821, although the porch and towers would not be completed until the 1870s. [76] Beginning with one for the Deutsches Museum in Munich, 15 domed projection planetariums using concrete shells up to 30 meters wide had been built in Europe by 1930, and that year the Adler Planetarium in Chicago became the first planetarium to open in the Western Hemisphere. [48] The dome and building were completed by Charles Bulfinch in 1829. [7] Proportional rules for an arch's thickness to span ratio were developed during the 19th century, based on catenary shape changes in response to weight loads, and these were applied to the vertical forces in domes. [58] American Renaissance capitols also include those of Rhode Island and Minnesota. Geodesic domes have been used for radar enclosures, greenhouses, housing, and weather stations. [97], The first domed baseball stadium, the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, was completed in 1965 with a rigid 641 foot wide steel dome filled with 4,596 skylights. [40], The dome of Sydney's Queen Victoria Building uses radial ribs of steel along with redundant diagonal bracing to span 20 meters. [61], The "first fully triangulated framed dome" was built in Berlin in 1863 by Johann Wilhelm Schwedler in a gasometer for the Imperial Continental Gas Association and, by the start of the 20th century, similarly triangulated frame domes had become fairly common.

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