[63] Through Schwerpunktbildung, the German army could achieve superiority at the Schwerpunkt, whether attacking or defending, to turn local success at the Schwerpunkt into the progressive disorganisation of the opposing force, creating more opportunities to exploit this advantage, even if numerically and strategically inferior in general. The Germans followed their initial success with Operation Red, a triple-pronged offensive. The German army, contrary to the blitzkrieg legend, was not fully motorised and had only 120,000 vehicles, compared to the 300,000 of the French Army. [68], The concepts associated with the term blitzkrieg—deep penetrations by armour, large encirclements, and combined arms attacks—were largely dependent upon terrain and weather conditions.

Tank and vehicle production was a constant problem for Germany; indeed, late in the war many panzer "divisions" had no more than a few dozen tanks. [132], After the war, Albert Speer claimed that the German economy achieved greater armaments output, not because of diversions of capacity from civilian to military industry but through streamlining of the economy. The so-called "blitzkrieg campaigns" of 1939 – circa 1942, were well within that operational context. On 21 June 1940, early in the second year of World War Two, the French president, Marshall Philippe Pétain, sued for peace with Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. However, the Soviet Union launched a counteroffensive in November 1942, trapping and destroying an entire German army at Stalingrad. [141], The Luftwaffe did end up with an air force consisting mainly of relatively short-range aircraft, but this does not prove that the German air force was solely interested in ’tactical’ bombing. Colonel Charles de Gaulle advocated concentration of armour and aeroplanes. After blitzkrieg failed in the Soviet invasion, however, Hitler and German military leaders distanced themselves from the concept, claiming it was an invention of their enemies; Hitler himself denied he had ever used the word. Washington, DC 20024-2126 [11] Some senior officers, including Kurt Student, Franz Halder and Johann Adolf von Kielmansegg, even disputed the idea that it was a military concept. [50] In 2002 H. P. Willmott had noted that deep battle contained two important differences: it was a doctrine of total war (not of limited operations), and rejected decisive battle in favour of several large, simultaneous offensives. [citation needed].

The Enigma of German Operational Theory: the Evolution of Military Thought in Germany, 1919–1938 (PhD 2008), Spiegel Online: The Nazi Death Machine, Hitler's Drugged Soldiers, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blitzkrieg&oldid=983205806, Words and phrases with no direct English translation, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Raudzens, George. Modern Bewegungskrieg: German Battle Doctrine, 1920–1940 (2001), Vardi, Gil-Li. The Luftwaffe deployed squadrons of fighters, dive bombers and transport aircraft as the Condor Legion. Mechanization of the army was considered a means to avoid mass casualties and indecisive nature of offensives, as part of a combined-arms theory of war.

In November 1937 Hitler had indicated that most of the armament projects would be completed by 1943–45. That the German army had a "blitzkrieg doctrine" was rejected in the late 1970s by Matthew Cooper. [156], Some of the historians that have addressed the misconception of the originality and formalisation of blitzkrieg in their works are: Shimon Naveh (, These are some of the many notable historians that have casually used the term, harv error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFErickson2001 (, Nothing appeared in Luftwaffe 'doctrine' stipulating "terror" as a major operational factor. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. "[144] Blitzkrieg was not an official doctrine and historians in recent times have come to the conclusion that it did not exist as such.

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